Sudan is the largest country in Africa, like many African countries, consists of numerous ethnic groups. Unlike most states, however, Sudan has two distinct divisions: the north, which is largely Arab and Muslim, and the south, which consists predominantly of black Nilotic peoples, some of whom are members of indigenous faiths and others who are.
Christians. British policy during the Anglo-Egyptian condominium (1899-1955) intensified the rift because Britain established separate administrations for the two areas and forbade northerners to enter the south. In the 1990s, many southerners continued to fear being ruled by northerners, who lacked familiarity with their beliefs and ethnic traditions and sought to impose northern institutions on them, Sudan like any other country has a history, and has present.
Sudan's advantageous geographic location has made it the recipient to the migrations of many people of different ethnic origins. This led some writers to call it (Mini- Africa).According lo the 1995 census, the population of Sudan is 26.6 million people. Annual population growth is 2.8%. There are more than 300 tribes in Sudan, including Danagla, Gaalien, and Shaigia in the north; Bija in the east; Kababish, Humar, Nuba, Baggara, and Fur in the west; and Dinka, Newir, and Skeluk in the south. The people come from numerous different ethnic backgrounds, mainly Arab in the north, and African in the south.
About 60 percent of the population are Muslim, 25 per cent are Animist, and 15 per cent .
Christian. Arabic is the official language, but there are more than 100 tribal languages, many of which are spoken by large numbers of people. In the dry north and west, most people are pastoralists depending on livestock for their living, and often living a nomadic lifestyle. Further south, where there is sufficient rainfall, more people are settled farmers.
Each year, large numbers of men leave their families to work as laborers in cities, on commercial farms, or overseas, leaving many women at home, looking after their families and farms alone.