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The development of Western Civ

            The civilization of Western Europe that emerged by 1300 was shaped by the ancient civilizations of Greece and the Roman Empire, then the Emergence of Christianity in the early middle ages and the maturing of the institution of the church, feudalism and the creation of nations in the late middle ages. Greece is birthplace of democracy and philosophy. The Romans created elaborate systems of organization to control their armies and territories and the built roads and other engineering marvels. Shortly after the fall of the Roman Empire, there emerged a dominant force in European history: Christianity. By the late Middle Ages kings ruled territories which are almost identical to the borders of countries that we know today. .
             For hundreds of years the Mediterranean was dominated by one people: the Greeks. Greece consisted of city-states or polis where a city was a self governing body in which its people lived under the cities rules and beliefs. One of the greatest of these polii was Athens. Athens developed the first rudimentary democracy. Greeks have a history of great philosophers and thinkers; and have contributed to Western thought the value of speculation and natural inquiry. They bestowed Europe with ideas and books which continue to prove discussion not only in philosophy but also in theater, mathematics, science, and government. The modern republican system of government today in Europe was being used over a thousand years before until it dropped out of existence, only to rise again to be an overwhelmingly sound form of government.
             As Rome became more powerful, it adopted from Greece its scholarship and artistry. Its civilization was more practical with Rome concentrating on politics, trade, and conquest. This great empire spanned from southern England to Egypt. The engineering and architectural energy remain in ruins of aqueducts, arches, temples and the Coliseum. On an entirely different level one of the most important things the Romans left us was in paper.

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