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the studiolo form Renaissance

             Gubbio studiolo, Designed by Francesco di Giorgio Martini, It made in Gubbio, Italy. It made by the Intarsia of walnut, the beech, the rosewood, the oak, and fruitwoods on the walnut base. It made between 14761480. Gubbio studiolo belongs to the architecture. It is one of the most important works of art of the Italian Renaissance. .
             On the lower shelf Gubbio Studiolo, it hangs a brass or wooden quadrant, with measurement scales incised along its lower curve and straight edge. This mathematical instrument was used to calculate distances, heights, and depths in connection with the construction of fortifications, towers, wells, and the like.
             On the top shelf of one of the cabinets is an armillary sphere, an astronomical instrument, hanging from a hook by an ivory or wooden handle. It is similar to the small portable brass spheres used in the fifteenth century for teaching elementary astronomy. We see in it, accurately depicted according to the Ptolemaic system that placed the earth at the center of the universe, a small terrestrial globe surrounded by its celestial coordinates: the meridians, the equator, and arctic and antarctic rings, as well as the wider, oblique band of the ecliptic, which sometimes carried the signs of the zodiac.
             There are five pieces of armor in the left cabinet on the window side of the studiolo evoke the pageantry of courtly tournaments a pair of greaves, a pair of rowelled spurs, a mace, a pair of gauntlets, and a helmet with the eagle holding an armorial shield as a crest. The open-faced sallet depicted here was a favorite type of fifteenth-century parade headgear: covered with velvet and embellished with jewels and gilding, I think the helmets given in Florence as prizes at jousts or other ceremonies.
             The duke's symbolic presence in the studiolo is evoked throughout in the decoration of the paneling. In the panel to the left of the window, a half-opened cabinet discloses a large octagonal cage with a parakeet and seed box inside.

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