The purpose of Engels writing this piece is not to specifically to refute anyone, but after Marx's death in 1883, Engels spend the rest of his life editing and translating Marx's writing. Therefore, this piece is an interpretation of Marx's writing, and develops the idea that Marx was a "strict economic determinist," and that Marxism was a scientific account of historical inevitability. He wrote it with the intention of providing workers with a clear-cut description to Marxist thought.
2. The conclusion Engels comes to, is that throughout history, man has constantly struggled to discover a new perfect system of social order. However, it has to come to a time where the capitalist theory has become so superfluous that is actually hinders the development of society. Engels does not deny that it helped to further societal freedoms, however now it has been taken to an extent where the division of classes actually suppresses others in society. Therefore, with the seizing of production by society, and anarchy in social production is replaced by a systematic definite organization that really constitutes itself as the representative of the whole society, then struggle for private property and individual existence will disappear, and the state will not be abolished but will eventually die out. Therefore, if the proletariat seizes public power, and frees the means of production from the character of capital then the socialized entity will be able to work itself out, and man will at last be the master of his own social organization. .
3. Engels believes that it is human nature to do the best for its society. Since medieval times humans have tried to develop their society into what they think is the right way to conduct a society, in terms of economics and politics. Also, however, it is mans nature, to struggle for individual existence. In these terms, man tries to own as much private property as another, and struggles to have power over others.