classical behavioural theory deals with the relationship between the organism and the environment. It explains human behaviour, but not how it happens. .
A change in the environment = a change of possible rewards = a change of behaviour.
S > R > S > R. etc.
Cognitive revolution brought a change as behavioural theory did not account for the human thinking factor.
Seligman - with his theory of learned helplessness - normally any organism will learn to avoid pain, but after teaching an animal there was no escape there is no response. It learned to become helpless, which appears to be similar in depression sufferers. Ie: if we learn there is nothing we can do then we do nothing.
Beck - using cognitive language/theory to explain learned helplessness describes it as.
not knowing a way to think differently.
perceiving the world in an inaccurate way.
which means depressed people tend not to act.
CBT - is aimed at getting people to act and challenge false thinking.
CBT is systematic and structured. It has specific goals and can be very specific in its treatment of each individual.
The main goal is CONTROL, teaching the person to get control over themselves.
Skinner "control your environment and you are free".
CBT increases control by increasing skills, increasing response options to effect the environment, by giving options (eg: obsessive compulsives only see one option, CBT shows them more).
CBT is different to normal counselling, as it is action based rather than a process of reflection. The modern view of CBT is action rather than reflecting on the past, but this action is mediated by private information. Ie: what and how the client thinks, and what they are doing along with the thoughts.
This lets people realise patterns between their thoughts and actions. .
As humans are pattern seeking, looking for logic, we often unconsciously learn associations between thought and action.
CBT is carried out by:.