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            In "Liberalism", Emilia Viotti da Costa paints a picture of the political, social, and economic atmosphere in Brazil during the 1800's. One topic of her discussion was the many regional rebellions in the country between 1822 and 1845. Another topic discussed was Brazilian politics and how it may have contributed to the instability of the nation. A third topic of interest included the factors that allowed Pedro II to rule largely until 1889 without disruption. These are the three main topics of interest discussed in Emilia Viotti da Costa's chapter "Liberalism". .
             There were many reasons for the multiple regional rebellions that took place in Brazil from 1822 until 1845. The first of these reasons was the forming of the National Convention, which was composed of many groups of social elites ranging from priests to plantation owners. These social elites had completely separate motivations and initiatives, which were mostly personal and wealth driven, than those of the lower class. The Constitutional Charter, passed in 1824, was a second reason for rebellion in the country. This "Constitution" was created by the Brazilian elite and supported their self-interests and property. Class and racial differences were a major issue of the time. The constitution held no value for the majority of the population, who were mostly slaves and tenants on land they could not own. A third reason for rebellion by Liberals was religion, as Catholicism was the official religion of Brazil. As mentioned earlier, there were members of the National Convention who were priests. These individuals clearly wanted to preserve the interests of the church through the power of education. These are some of the underlying themes beneath the many regional rebellions of the period. .
             Brazilian politics also helped to cause the instability of the nation. Two conflicting parties dominated the political scene at the time.

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