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Immanuel Kant

            Kant and the Theory of Human Knowledge.
             Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) is generally recognized as the greatest philosopher.
             since Plato and Aristotle. During this period philosophers sought to apply the methods of.
             science to the study of human beings. He was influenced greatly by the ethical and social.
             thought of Rousseau. Kant repeatedly expressed his faith in the free democratic use of.
             reason to examine everything, however traditional, authoritative, or sacred. Kant and his.
             philosophy was influenced by both Christianity and science and in seeing the most.
             fundamental problems of philosophy in how to combine the two. Kant views God as.
             omniscient, omnipotent, and benevolent; and immortal human soul; and human free-will. .
             Kant is also equally influenced by science. One fundamental objective of his philosophy.
             was to explain how scientific knowledge is possible. .
             Kant developed a systematic theory of knowledge and human cognitive faculties to.
             show how both the empirical methods of physical science and the method of proof in.
             mathematics depend on a priori presuppositions. He claimed that these cannot themselves.
             be proved by logical truths. Such principles, can, however, be seen by philosophical.
             reflection, specifically by "transcendental arguments," to be necessary conditions of any.
             empirical experience of the world.
             Kant sets out an elaborate theory of our forms of perception, thought, and.
             judgment and offers an account of how we can have some knowledge that is a priori and.
             yet "synthetic" in that it is not just a matter of definition or analysis of concepts. Kant's.
             "Copernican revolution" was his doctrine that "objects must conform to our knowledge." .
             We can know the world only "as it appears" to us; we cannot know it "as it is in itself." .
             The world as it is in itself may not be spatial or temporal. .
             Kant argued that universal determinism- the principle that every even has a.
             preceding cause, a state of affairs that makes that event necessarily happen- is a.

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