Problems in Europe in the 9th and 10th centuries were necessary for the residents at that time. The Early Middle Ages of European civilization were not good times for those people. Population was small, the food was limited, and disease and illness were easy to catch, but hard to cure. To put it simply, they had only room for improvement in many areas. Both foreign enemies and lack of political leadership added to the woes of these villagers and eventually forced the people of Europe to improve everything from political structure to military strength. The death of Louis the Pious (son of Charlemagne) caused a struggle amongst his three sons over land, and for the title of emperor. In 843 the Treaty of Verdun formally divided the kingdom and the Carolingian empire continued to dissolve. The squabbling amongst the three new rulers came at a time when Europe was being attacked by Muslims, Magyars and Vikings. The Muslims invaded from the south, the Magyars from the east, and the Vikings from the north. The attacks were devastating, and lasted many years. Trade was disrupted and travel, even short distances, was dangerous. The Vikings were the most vicious and feared of the attackers. The powerful warriors, most looking to settle, terrorized and attacked the locals. Some even believed the Vikings were sent from God to punish them for some unknown reason:" We pay them continually and they humiliate us daily What else is there in all these events except God's anger clear and visible over this people." Sure, the villagers of Europe were fighters, but most of their battles would take place internally, against each other. Now, because of the invasions, the need for cavalries, protection, and military strength were apparent. The attacks made it obvious to the people that the Carolingian rulers couldn't protect them, and what's more is they realized they were out matched by their faster moving and more powerful attackers.