Botswana, or Bechuanaland, received its name from its major ethnic group the Tswana. The Tswana came to this flat region by 1800. They took over making the San (the tribe that lived there) leave. In 1885 the British came and took over Bechuanaland, as it was then called, under protection. Finally, Bechuanaland earned its independence, September 30, 1966, with president Seretse Khama as the first president. .
Botswana has savannas but is mostly covered by a dry desert. The desert that covers most of the central and southern part is the Kalahari desert. Botswana is 231,805 square miles (a little bit smaller than Texas). The lowest point in Botswana is near the Shashe and Limpopo River junction (1,684 ft.). The highest point in this country is Otse Mountain (4,886 ft.). There are no permanent streams in southern Botswana. No water surrounds it, so it is landlocked. The countries that surround Botswana are Nambia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa. Gaborone is not only the largest but also the capital city of Botswana.
The climate in Botswana is always hot. The winters are warm and the summers are HOT! Their summer is October to April. Botswana has a subtropical climate. Droughts and winds can be natural hazards. The winds carry sand and dust making it very hard to see. The rainfall in the North is about 25 inches, and in the Kalahari it rains less than 9 inches!.
Botswana has a democratic government. Their main goals are to increase employment and to improve housing. Their president is elected by members of the legislator. There is a vice president and a cabinet of ten. The National Assembly consists of forty members.
Botswana is a poor country, but the economy is growing. The currency is called Pula. Their main trading partner is South Africa. Botswana exports cattle (meat & living). A slaughter house has been opened to modernize the livestock industry. Botswana is the largest producing country of gem quality diamonds.