Charles Darwin and His Dangerous Idea.
Charles Darwin had discovered a new branch of science, which is known as evolutionary biology. Darwin established his theory on the basis of four other contributions that were made to science: the non-constancy of species, the notion of branching evolution, Aristotle's concept of Scala Naturae-the chain of being, and the theory of natural selection. .
The discovery of natural selection is considered as one of the most "philosophical advance" in science history. The theory of natural selection distinctively gave reasonable explanations as to why organisms undergo adaptive changes in according to the environment it lives in, and that organisms produce more young than can survive. Darwin believed that nature selected the most well adapted groups to survive and reproduce, also known as "survival of the fittest." Natural selection is the most important foundation in discovering Darwin's theory of evolution.
Darwin had set up a five-year voyage to explore organism of the world, and some of the most intriguing species he found were from the Galapagos Islands. His voyage across the seas, and his detailed observations had led him to embrace the ideology of evolution. During his journey, Darwin was remarkably amazed by the Finches, which are a specie of birds, and how there were any outstanding dissimilarities between one bird on one island and another on the next island. He began to make connections with the shape of the bird's beaks, and how they differ in accordance to their habitation and environment. He also noted that when changes occur and create insignificant differences between offspring, nature selects and tends to eliminate those that are not suited for the particular environment.
The theory of evolution by natural selection was thought of as treason during the early 19th century against the religious views of the church and the society, which was published in his book On the Origin of Species.