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Introduction to Sociology

             What are the four social revolutions?.
             The evolution of society is divided into four social revolutions. From hunting and gathering societies, which are the most simple and nomadic, came the first social revolution, the domestication of animals and plants. The societies are called pastoral, which are based on pasturing animals and horticultural, which are based on the cultivation of plants using hand tools. Special divisions of human labor sprang from these societies. Food supplies became more dependable so not everyone had to work to produce food. A person could now make tools, jewelry, weapons, etc. for a living. Accumulation of material objects, animals and wealth was now possible. Most profoundly evidenced by these changes was social inequality, or the "haves" and the "have nots". Wars developed over material goods. From the wars sprang slavery. People found it easier to just have captives do the manual or hard labor. Also, as wealth was handed down to the next generation, it began to be unevenly distributed in the hands of a very few.
             When the plow was invented it brought about the second social revolution. Agricultural societies became predominant. Because the plow brought a more efficient means of farming, large food surpluses became available. Food production, or farming now took up less time. A person could now spend his spare time engaging in other activities. Cultural pursuits such as philosophy, literature, art and architecture became more prevalent. These changes were so profound that this period has been called "the dawn of civilization". .
             This revolution ushered in the power elite. Society became more unequally balanced with the elite gaining more control over the growing surplus resources and surrounded themselves with armies and levied taxes to stay in power. .
             Following the second social revolution was the Industrial Revolution. This revolution began in 1765 in Great Britain where the steam engine was first used to run machinery.

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