Prior to the teachings and ideals of affirmative action, the theories of Martin Luther King .
existed as a means of creating equality between the masses. Before the mid to late sixties, .
only the words of Mr. King acted as a threshold between discrimination between different .
classes of individuals. Currently, affirmative action may be said to be a child of the civil .
right's movement, which began with Mr. King. Despite the fact that affirmative action, or .
better known as equity, was designed as a an aid for minorities, many groups today see it .
as a deterrence in present day social systems. Although the program was first initiated for .
positive purposes, any new form of movement, which involves favouritism of a certain .
race, comes along with the glaring eyes of a distrustful nation.
A notable case is the 1978 Bakke decision involving the University of California's .
rejection of the plaintiff's application for entree into the University's Medical Program. .
The plaintiff clearly noted that the University had previously reserved sixteen spaces for .
minority students in accordance with the affirmative action policy that the University .
followed. The plaintiff, a white male, brought up the issue that he believed he had been .
rejected merely on the basis of his Caucasian status, and that minorities who had gained .
admission into the University had lower test scores then he did . The Bakke Supreme .
Court dispute reflected the intense and widespread emotions aroused by quotas, by .
preferential or compensatory treatment, and by affirmative action. Four justices ruled to .
admit Bakke and against preferential treatment; and one, to achieve some kind of judicial .
consensus, upheld Bakke's claim of unfair discrimination and ordered Bakke into the .
medical school while also upholding affirmative action on the right of universities to seek .
The Bakke decision further reinforced the thriving white opposition to "reverse .