The "state of nature- of human beings was the focal point for many of the 1500th -1900th century philosophers. Many of these philosophers attempted to understand and describe humans in this original condition. One of the most intriguing aspects of man was the concept of human interaction as it pertained to cooperation and competition. Theories, hypothesizes, and explanations were plentiful and very diverse. As the various facets of man were studied, the exchange of ideas and information regarding human interaction created a variety of new philosophies. Each of the philosophers contributed their perspective to the pool of ideas and broadened the scope of understanding of how the "state of nature- influenced and helped individuals manage and run society. Throughout this process of understanding, many philosophers introduced ideas and concepts that influenced our culture and society. .
First, Thomas Hobbes identified that humans were in continual war with "every man, against every man". A time of "no arts; no letters; no society; and which is worst of all, continual fear and danger of violent death; and the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short".1 Because man's natural state is so debased, Hobbes applied a authoritarian view of social contract. He deemed that a social contract was required to keep peace and order. He was the first modern theorist to agree for absolute power of government. In an effort to resolve this, he argued that humans would agreed to cooperate for survival, by agreeing to surrender some freedom in return for stability. He wanted to create a social contract with a large group that would abide the laws of government. Thus, Hobbes believed that the government should take the form of monarchy, not a democracy. This form of government still exists in countries today. The theoretical construct was based in absolute materialism. Hobbes thought matter was all that existed.