Early in 1990, the Human Genome Project (HGP) was formed. This 13-year effort was formed to analyze the human genetic inheritance in its original molecular format. The Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health were the main research agencies involved with the HGP. These two agencies were involved in developing and planing the project in the US government. The Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health were working together, a relationship was formed by the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding. This agreement was simply to coordinate research and technical activities related to the human genome. The goal of the HGP is to generate a series of tools that will change biological research.
In the beginning of the Human Genome Project, the initial plan was set for completion in a 15-year timeframe, making the project complete in the year 2005. Fortunately, newer and faster technological advances have accelerated the completion deadline to the year 2003.
The complete nucleotide sequence of human DNA is approximately 50,000 to 100,000 genes in the human genome. The Human Genome Project estimated to take ten to twenty years to complete. During this time its anticipated that physical and genetic maps of the human genome will be completed. The scientific products of the HGP will contain a resource of genomic maps and DNA sequence information that will provide detailed information about the structure, organization and characteristics of human DNA. This information constitutes the basic set of inherited "instructions" for the development and functioning of a human being. The next phase of the project focused on the sequencing of DNA. .
Mapping the human genome involves sequences of adenine (A), cytose (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T); these "letters" are what make up DNA. Completely sequencing the human genome would answer questions about genetic diseases, cosmetic appearance, and even personality and behavior within the human body.