â€œThe Functions of a Patrol Officerâ€.
The oldest and most basic function in law enforcement is the patrol function. The purpose of patrol is strictly to protect and preserve life and property in communities. Along with protecting citizens, patrol officers deteriorate crime by becoming a visible presence preventing potential crime. Their accessibility to people in the community maintains order and allows a trust to develop between the people and the department. The process of developing a patrol officer demands preparing an officer for patrol, and to put these duties and responsibilities into the hands of an officer of the law.
The history of police can be dated back to Babylonian times in 2000 B.C. A clay tablet shows an officer arresting a man and taking his property, â€œwatchousesâ€ were stationed to patrol the streets and maintain order. Progression in the middle ages led to â€œwatchmenâ€, in cities in Europe. These watchmen were put there by local government to provide order. These men carried a pointed or bladed staff as a sign of authority, lantern to see in the night, and a horn or bell to call for back up or assistance. In the early middle ages England created the keepers of the peace were established and these men were knights assigned to protect the king. Soon after, the Statutes of Winchester were created forming laws and curfews for the citizens. Over time more organizations formed, the Thames River Police were created to protect boats and ships entering the river carrying goods from the colonies. The Bow Street Horse Patrol was organized protecting the streets leading to London against looters. Then finally the formation of the Metropolitan Police gave way to a new way of protection of the people. .
New York city was the first to organize the first modern police force in 1844, based on the English Metropolitan Police. During the modern period the automobile and radio communications helped police and patrol powers expand and during this time tactics were first taught.