Through the many reforms our police in America, we have yet to find a constant policing system that is effective throughout the centuries. Police have carried many duties including; enforcing laws, apprehending criminals, medical assistant, and community supporter. As society has changed so has the view of what the police function is. The police function must include a social contract between the people and the organization. "Hobbes is famous for his early and elaborate development of what has come to be known as "social contract theory", the method of justifying political principles or arrangements by appeal to the agreement that would be made among suitably situated rational, free, and equal persons" (Lloyd, 2014). The function of police comes directly from the social contract. Individuals agree to give up some rights with the understanding that the agency responsible for providing protection will do so as they require. The style of policing has changed throughout the nation over the centuries according to the ideal of the social contract.
The police roots come from the English tradition. The known law enforcers of English heritage are the sheriff and the constable. The sheriff was known for being the highest enforcer who arrested criminals, collect taxes, and several other duties. In the states of New York, Boston, & Philadelphia the largest enforcer was known as the constable who did much of the same duties as the sheriff. After the Industrial Revolution, the population increased rapidly and so did crime and disruption in the nation. Individuals of higher social class called for a different law enforcement, one that would deter the criminal. They called for centralized force, later came to be known as the preventive police adopted by the Fieldings and Jeremy Bentham. A centralized force would consist of a uniform police who patrol the city. Not everyone took liking to this system because they saw it as an army.