Egypt is in the northeast corner of Africa and is 1,001,450 sq km. The land is divided up into Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt. These names come from where the Nile River is flowing. Land that is downstream or to the north is Lower Egypt and land that is downstream of the Nile or to the south is called Upper Egypt. The Nile River delta is located at the northern end of the river where the Nile empties into the Mediterranean Sea. A delta is land that is made by leftover sand, dirt, and rocks from the river flowing into the sea.
Cairo is the capital city and it is in Lower Egypt in the Nile Delta near the Nile River, which is the longest river in the world. Most of the cities are near the Nile Valley because the land is more fertile. Most of the land in Egypt is desert, which are dry and desolate. Hardly any trees or vegetation grows in the desert. The summers are hot with dusty wind blowing and the winter is very mild.
The geography of Egypt's natural defences kept Egypt safe from attack from others because it is protected on all sides by natural barriers. The Mediterranean Sea is in the north, the Sahara desert is in the west, the Sudd swamp is in the south, and the Red Sea protects the east. Also the only two ways to get into Egypt by land are the Gaza strip in the northeast and El-Alamein in the Northwest. Egyptians easily defended these two places.
The Nile River is the longest river in the world and one of the few rivers that flow north because of the geography. It is 6695 km long and the surface area is 3,350,000 square km. The Nile River is made up of two rivers the White Nile and the Blue Nile. The White Nile is a lot bigger then the Blue Nile. The White Nile comes from Lake Victoria in east central Africa. The Blue Nile's source is Lake Tana in Ethiopia. These two rivers meet in Sudan and then other tributaries join the White Nile further south. The Nile