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Visual Art Types

             The evolution of art first began in a workshop environment and was considered techne, making according to a plan. It was a collaboration of many artists working together even though many early pieces are credited to one artist. At the time, there was no distinction between art and craft. Art was purely functional unlike today. What we consider visual art was for many techne.
             This changed during the Renaissance movement in Europe around 1563 with the opening of one of the first academies of fine art. The distinction between fine art and craft was finally made. It was no longer dominated by techne or function. The only function that can be appropriately applied is that of the sole propose to appreciate or collect fine art.
             The next major change in art's evolution occurred during the Industrial Revolution around 1719. The factories, railroads, and mass production began to take shape. The first design academies were opened and a new ideology developed. The idea of design as mass produced objects for the everyday took over where the crafts use to be. Prior to 1910, design then advertising existed differently than as we know it today. Examples could be found outside taverns or stores on posters. The difference was that these posters told you of product or services and if you chose to purchase them great. But by 1910, the content of the poster changed to try and entice the potential purchaser that they needed the product or service.
             In the development of design and advertising, functionalism began to play a major role. Functionalism is the idea that art should be judged by its function in society. It became popular to use it as a part of the criteria to judge other art. Functionalist's of the 1900's believed the ideal art is where form and function are completely married.
             Then around the 1850's Expressionist art evolved during the Romantic period. The Expressionist's believed art is the expression of emotion and what is important about art is how it reflects the person as an artist and their level of sincerity.

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