Ancient Mexico is home to some of the earliest and most advanced civilizations in the western hemisphere. This region is known historically as Mesoamerica. Mesoamerica is used to refer to the geographical and cultural traditions of the pre-Columbian civilizations that are as follows: Mexico, Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua. There were six key civilizations in Mexico; they were, The Olmecs, Teotihuacans, Toltecs, Mayans, Zapotec (Mixtec), and the Aztecs. .
The Olmecs were the first culture established in Mexico. They had a great influence on the other developing tribes. The Olmecs are said to have one of the most baffling cultures, because there is not much information on where thy came from or why they disappeared. The Olmecs lived between 1500 and600 BC, in the swampy lowlands of Tabasco and Veracruz. They were very intelligent peoples that calculated mathematics and observed planets to form a calendar. Many temples and sites with priceless jade figurines were constructed, but were destroyed between 900 and 400 BC.
This civilization, which was called "city of gods,"" was located on the Valley of Mexico. By the year 350 AD it was considered that this was the largest empire in the world at that time. This civilization eventually spread its religious, political and economical influence over the Mesoamerican world. The Teotihuacans built monumental structures. "The Pyramid of the Sun- and "The Pyramid of the Moon- were only the names of two of the many great constructions of the Teotihuacans. Around 650 AD the Teotihuacan influence slowly began to decline. It is said that their empire was destroyed by either a natural disaster or an invasion. When the "city of gods- collapsed its peoples and culture were disseminated throughout Mesoamerica.
The Toltecs rose to power in the tenth century and are the first known civilization to leave a written history.