Aristotle was a teacher and studied under Plato at the academy and attended his lectures for a period of twenty years. In later years he began to lecture on his own, especially on the subject of rhetoric. All teachers believe in education for the individual and for all society, thence we would achieve the perfect state, with leaders and followers, and workmen grouped according to their educational facilities. I believe that according to Aristotle, the state was the beginning of all. .
Aristotle thinks that the city or polis, naturally comes into being as a result of physical necessity as the natural completion of the smaller partnership, the household and village. This is why I think that Aristotle believed the state came first. He thinks that the state is a political partnership that comes into being for purpose of self-sufficiency but exists primarily for the sake of living well.
He felt that logic was verbal reasoning. After all the combination of words gives rise to rational speech and thought. When we verbalize with another, we start forming attachments, attachments lead to families, and families lead to communities, which make a society who reside of course in the state. Without the individual there can be no families, no society and no state.
Aristotle wrote much about rationality and irrationality of humans, and how much of each we share with animals. The rational part of being is distinctly human. Humans are able, or supposed to be able, to control their emotions and desires. The mastery of this ability is called intellectual virtue. He argues that the ability to regulate our desires is not instinctive, but learned and is the outcome of both teaching and practice. .
Aristotle felt the city is more important than the individual in some ways and because the city exists for the sake of living well, virtue must be a care for the city. But a city needs individuals to rule, collective individuals to be the multitudes, but educated individuals to attain the highest offices.