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John Locke and Thomas Hobbes

            Since there is no code of laws or morals that govern human beings, people are guided by their own personal instincts of what is right and wrong. There are no established rules that human beings have to abide by. This in a essence highlights that there is no rule of law, or governmental authority to take charge of the states affairs. For John Locke, government was a social contract between those who are governed and those who were appointed to be in authority to govern others. It was a form of understanding made between the two parties. .
             John Locke argued that there can be a peaceful co-existence among citizens without necessarily having to be controlled by a person or group of persons. There can be order without control being exercised by an individual. One does not have to take charge of the people for order to be reached. People will then behave according to the "laws of nature" which according to him include natural freedom and moral equality (also called their natural rights). According to Locke, people would act freely without being restrained by any set up rules or laws that would curtail their freedom and happiness. If this is the case, then it would degenerate to chaos as everybody would be doing all manner of acts including stealing, killing each other in order to satisfy their needs. Also in the state of law, all men have the equal right to reprimand others who go against the laws of nature. .
             John Locke also conceptualized the property rights idea. In this concept, he states, "if an individual spends his time and energy to improve certain property, which originally had no owner, he can claim ownership of that property." When this is applied to the state of nature where there is probably no law; such rights cannot be defended or even claimed. This therefore led to a proposal by "Locke" from the initial state of nature to a situation where people form a government (social contract) to try and defend the rights and claims of the property.

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