Europe went through vast changes between 1300 and 1600 with astounding inventions in the disciplines of science, astronomy, exploration and art (painting, sculpture, architecture, and literature). This time period, known as the Renaissance, was seen as a new age of learning and thinking with a cultural movement in which art, literature, music, philosophy, and education contributed to numerous developments and influences. The Renaissance movement had its genesis in fourteenth century Florence, Italy with the notable writer Francesco Petrarca (or Petrarch) endorsing the idea of a reawakening of the literature and learning of ancient Greece and Rome. The word 'renaissance' means rebirth.
Seen as a bridge between the Middle Ages and the modern era, The Renaissance also marked a cognitive shift from a religious perspective to a more intellectual and social focus. Classical texts previously lost to European scholars became readily available and included science, drama, poetry, prose, philosophy, and new ideas regarding Christian theology. The medieval ages, a period in European history dating from the 5th to the 15th centuries, preceded the dawn of the Early modern era, and was considered a deviation from classical learning but later reemerged with its connection to scholarship in the Renaissance (Stokstad, 3). During the high medieval period (1000-1300), architecture and art based on religion was said to have flourished and the art reflected a move toward international Christianity (Renaissance Art, web). Supposedly, there was an attempt to integrate reason with faith. However, interest grew in the values of ancient Rome and Greece, and the Renaissance began to emerge. During the Renaissance, there was a shift in the focus of art from the medieval religion-based artistic style towards a humanistic art interpretation where the emphasis was on individuality as opposed to powerful figures such as the gods and political leaders of the precious era.