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Factors in Second Language Learning and Aquisition

            Second language acquisition and learning refers to any language gain in addition to the native tongue. Acquisition is a natural and intuitive process while learning is a deliberate tactic to grasp a language (Second Language Acquisition, n.d). Acquisition is an unintentional and instinctive conduct toward which the individual is oblivious. Both adults and children are capable of instinctively acquiring a language while learning is a deliberate process achieved with effort. Language structures are present in the human mind, in the form of language design and configuration and react to correct errors. According to research (Krashen, 1981), language learning requires properly guided instructions and is less effective or fairly incompetent than acquisition.
             Diversity of Factors .
             The pace and ease of acquisition and learning a second language is complex and include internal and external factors conditional to an individual's characteristics. Level of cognitive development, social-economic status, cultural background, personality, together with age and motivation are most disputed collective factors acknowledged. Some researchers (Gomleksiz, 2001), believe age and motivation could perhaps be the most important factors in learning a second language. Motivation is implied to be one significant aspect of second language acquisition. It would be easy to classify the motivation into two main categories; integrative and instrumental. Integrative motivation is more contingent on the learner's optimism and mindset towards learning. Whereas instrumental motivation is more conditional on functional, social or economic reward towards what the learner wants to achieve. Both forms establish the correlation towards the success of second language acquisition and learning. In his research Norris-Holt (2001) conclude that there is no uncertainty about motivation being one of the most crucial factors in second language acquisition and learning.

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