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Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in India: 2000-2012

             Background- Tuberculosis remains as a major global health problem. India is one of the 22 high burden TB countries in the world. This article is aimed to assess the incidence, prevalence and mortality of Tuberculosis in India in relation to smear results, treatment outcome, time period and HIV.
             Methods – WHO global health report was the main data source for the study. Data tables and graphs were constructed from the WHO data for incidence, prevalence and mortality using Microsoft Excel.
             Results- The population covered for 2012 was 1237 million with incidence of 1,183,373 and prevalence of 1,467,585 cases. Data from the WHO database has records from 1990 however for India data sets were available from 1995. Mortality rate (excluding HIV+TB cases) in 2012 was down to 270 per 100000 population and Prevalence rate has been falling since 2000 with current rate 2800 per 100000population. Treatment success rates have increased to over 85%.
             Conclusion- Tuberculosis burden has been gradually dropping in India with implementation of DOTS through nationwide RNTCP.HIV reporting has become significant breakthrough showing ART treatment to cause less incidence. TB more common in females at reproductive age group . Males show around 65% higher incidence than females except in childhood where female incidence is higher than males. .
             Keywords- Tuberculosis, epidemiology, India, DOTS, Incidence, Prevalence, Mortality, .
             gender, smear positive.
             India is one of the 22 high Tuberculosis burden countries in the world with 26% of the total TB cases of 2012 from India. There has been a rise in MDR (multidrug resistant TB) and XDR (extreme drug resistant TB) over 2011 and 2012 with India being one of the three countries with the largest rise (1). In India, The Revised National TB Control Programme implemented by Central TB Division runs the WHO recommended DOTS strategy (2). The DOTS strategy involves the treatment of TB patients for the first 2 months with the first-line drugs of chemotherapy [7].

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