Throughout the recent years the world has demonstrated increased concern over the climate change phenomenon. Several regional institutions and international research centers have investigated the statistics of this phenomenon with the aim of identifying how to reduce the associated risks and cope with the changing conditions. Amongst the numerous countries concerned about the significance of climate change and its potential impact, is the Arab Republic of Egypt. Egypt is located in northern Africa bordering the Mediterranean and the Red Sea. The whole country has only one main source of water supply, the River Nile, which supplies over 95% of the water needs of the country. Climate change is a threat to not just the coastal areas of the Nile delta but the whole country due to its far reaching impacts in Egypt's agriculture, economy, and populaces.
Egypt is the second most populated country in Africa. Its population is over 80 million and is growing at 1.7% per year. The Nile delta and the narrow valley of the river is about 5.5% of the area of Egypt, but the area is home to most of Egypt's population. With the exception of small areas of cultivated land, the rest of Egypt is desert. Approximately 60% of Egyptians live in unregistered housing without proper sewage and drainage facilities. This population is at the highest risk to suffer from the adverse effects of climate change. Climate change has caused sea levels to rise, which has driven many people to elevate their houses several feet off of the ground as a quick fix to the problem. However, based on the current population pattern, it is likely that a migration of at least two million people from the Delta coastal areas will occur due to the inundation and loss of fertile land. .
The coastal zones of the Nile are the most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change and are ranked as the most serious. Climate change effects on the coastal zones also impacts water resources, agricultural resources, tourism and human settlements.