Saudi Arabia contains a population of less than twenty million people and is the largest country located in the Middle East. It is bordered by the countries of Jordon, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Oman, and Bahrain. The Red Sea lies to the west and the Persian Gulf lies to the northeast of Saudi Arabia. The geography of the country varies from the humid western coastal region to sandy lowlands in the east although located in the southwestern region there are mountains as high as ten thousand feet. It is considered to be the birthplace of Islam as well as its founder the Prophet Muhammad. The common language is Arabic and the religion is ninety nine percent Muslim. Saudi Arabia is best known for its oil and is considered the largest oil producer in the world. The country's green and white flag has been used since March 15, 1973. The flag represents justice and the script on the flag is known as the shahada which is the Islamic declaration of faith. The shahada translates to: "There is no God but Allah and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah. ".
The capital of Saudi Arabia is Riyadh and is also the largest city of the country. It contains four distinct regions: Najd, Hasa, Asir, and Hejaz. Najd is known as the heartland which includes the capital city of Riyadh, Nasa is where the oil of the country is located, Asir is located in the southernmost part of the country, and the Hejaz region includes the ancient holy city of Mecca. Saudi Arabian religion is considered to be the country's national identity, society, law, and politics and as stated earlier is the birthplace of the prophet Muhammad. It is also the guardian of the holy cities of Mecca and Medina and contains the Hajj which is the pilgrimage to Mecca. Islam is also employed both domestically and internationally and is a factor in Saudi Arabia's diplomacy and foreign policy. It is also made up of mostly Wahabbis with its founder being Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab.