This paper describes key parts of the discussion that has been going on among researchers and others over the course of the last decade about what bullying is, its influence, what may be causing it, and what are its consequences among male, high school teenagers. Bullying encompasses many aspects of adolescence and is a microcosm of the social architecture of the human experience of adulthood in worldwide communities. The influence and causes of bullying are complex, mirroring its broad definition; and its social, psychological, physical and economic consequences while generally suspected and partially studied have been largely unreported and remain unknown. .
Bullying is a fact of life these days among male adolescents. It is so prevalent everywhere that it may be called a rite of passage. Unofficial estimates made by researchers studying the phenomenon in many different countries and venues (traditional and cyberbullying) all over the world range from 5-43% adolescent involvement as bully or victim depending upon how and where bullying is acknowledged, perceived, defined, or described by parents, teachers, bullies, victims or bystanders (Branwhite, 1994; Pack, White, Raczynski and Wang, 2011; Carlyle, & Steinman, 2007). These are large and disturbing numbers that may go well beyond the comfort zone of statistical limitations in terms of its behavioral influence on social structures and adult relationships. For example, some unofficial estimates are that the numbers of adolescent witnesses of bullying are perhaps as much as 75-80% student and teacher populations (Pack, et al., 2011). As to the acts of bullying themselves, numerous researchers have reported that verbal abuse is twice as prevalent as physical abuse (Mauder, et al., 2010); and may be more insidious and destructive in the long term. .
Dyadic, Unequal Power Matchup.
Bullying is generally dyadic – and specifically mano-a- mano (Veenstra et al.