Socialisation is a process by which people learn the accepted ways of behaving in the society and the roles, norms, values and culture of the society and a sense of self.it mainly takes place during childhood, but continues throughout life via various agencies like education, mass media etc. There are two types of socialisation, primary socialisation, which is the early form of socialisation in the family and close community and secondary socialisation, which takes place beyond the family and close community, such as through education system, mass media and work place. Socialisation takes place b/c people learn social sanctions which are the reward and punishments by which social control is achieved and conformity to norms and values enforced, that exist to encourage appropriate behaviour and discourage inappropriate behaviour and these sanctions may be positive, rewards of various kinds or negative, punishments of various types. .
The most intensive period of socialisation happens within the family, it is in the family that by imitation babies learn to walk and talk, and to act like the mother or the father, by taking on the gender roles. In this way the individual learns to be a human. It has been a question in consideration to many sociologists that whether the social identity of the individual is something that can be chosen and interpreted or that it is similar to that of an actor whose roles and lines are already written. .
FUNCTIONALIST VIEW OF SOCIALISATION:.
Durkheim saw socialisation as a one way process in which society through social agencies such as family, education, peer group, inculcates (introduce/impress/infuse) individuals into the roles prescribed for them. He believed that the society is a part of us, it enters us, it is inside and outside us, we are fused with it and we feed on the practices and sentiments of the society. Society can be seen as a system of moral norms in which individuals respond to the rewards and punishments.