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3D Printing, Drug Research and Design

             What is drug research and development? Drug research and development is creation and testing of new pharmaceuticals in scientific laboratories and clinical settings. Drug research and design is an important part of modern pharmaceuticals. Without drug research and development many pharmaceuticals would be available to the public without first being tested for deleterious health effects that may in fact be worse than the ailment the patient is currently facing. These side effects can be discovered in humans through clinical trials. There are many different types of clinical trials out there that aid to the advancement of scientific knowledge. However, clinical trials in pharmaceuticals are usually compensated testing for the efficacy of new drugs. Before new drugs reach this step they must pass a series of vigorous testing in the laboratory. In the laboratory is where a drug is designed and then goes through a set of trials in vitro studies and also in vivo studies, with the use of animal models. The in vitro studies can be anything from the drug's effects on the blood stream or dopamine levels in the brain. Animal models give a better idea of the drug's effects in a complex model. Rats and mice are a favored animal model in the area of pharmaceuticals, because of they are small animals and have many of the same bodily functions as humans. In contrast many people are opposed to the use of animal models in research. It is deemed as unethical especially if many animals are dying. The question is often asked is man's life more important than another animals? Regardless of how one feels the prevention of both animal and human aspect of the research and development stage of a drug is important and very much needed in science. .
             The first step to lower the mortality rate of animal models and fewer instances of harsh side effects for humans in clinical trials is to change testing methods before the animal testing is done in the laboratory setting.

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