India decided to move away from its monarchical roots after the British left in 1947 and chose to become a modern republic. India became Independent on 15th August, 1947. After the independent the first thing to do was to make a Constitution for the country. A Constitution is a documents of rules according to which the Government of a country is run. The primary function of a constitution is to lay out the basic structure of the government according to which the people are to be governed. It is the constitution of a country, which establishes the three main organs of the government, namely, the legislature, executive and judiciary. An assembly of the elected representatives of the people was set up to make the Constitution. It was called the Constituent Assembly. Dr. Rajendra Prasad was the first President of the Constituent Assembly.
A sub-committee of some members of the Constituent Assembly was formed to draft a constitution. This committee was known as the Drafting Committee. Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkor was the first Chairman of the Drafting Committee. This committee drafted a Constitution for the country. The draft Constitution prepared by this committee was presented to the Constituent Assembly. It was discussed by the elected representatives of the people in the Constituent Assembly. They made certain changes and then the Constitution was accepted. Indian constitution is the most detailed constitution in the world. No other constitution has gone into such minute details as the Indian Constitution. It was fully debated and duly enacted by the Constitution Assembly of India. It took about three years to frame the Constitution. The New Constitution came into force on 26th January 1950. With it India became a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, and Democratic Republic. .
The Constitution of India begins with a Preamble which contains the basic ideals and principles of the Constitution. It lays down the objectives of the frames of the Constitution.