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Race and School Discipline

             Does the punishment fit the crime? Unfortunately, for minority students, office disciplinary referrals in comparison to students of other races are much higher. A study was conducted to determine "the rate at which male American Indian students received office discipline referrals compared to female and the leading behavior violations and how they compare across race/ethnicity, and the impact that the type of ODR and race/ethnicity have on administrative action" (Whitford & Levine-Donnerstein , 2014). The results were that American Indian students were more likely to receive office disciplinary referrals than their fellow Caucasian, Hispanic, and Asian students but not higher than African American students. It was also found that most office referrals given were for defiance or disrespect, followed by aggression and attendance. In addition, results indicated that there were higher odds of American Indian students receiving some level of administrative action which resulted in suspension or explosion, in comparison to their Caucasian and Hispanic classmates. The question then remains, whether the punishment fits the crime, or if the race and ethnicity of a student is what determines the punishment? .
             ANALYZE .
             Each school has a school handbook and administrative mandates that they create to keep order on their campuses. However, after reading the article and having the intense conversation in class, it is evident that some students in our schools are not receiving the same mandates as others. Is it that the students deserve a strong punishment because their behaviors are more extreme? No, unfortunately, minority students receive harsher punishments than that of their classmates solely because of their skin color. What's even more disheartening is the long term affects this has on these students. I recently watch a documentary about the jail system in America and how many of those jailed are minorities.

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