Hydrocarbons are compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms. Methane (CH4) and ethane (C2H6) are one of the major examples of hydrocarbons. They also belong to a subgroup of compounds called alkanes. ALKANES are hydrocarbons that do not have multiple bonds between carbon atoms, and we can indicate this in the family name and names for specific compounds by the –ane ending. Other hydrocarbons may contain double or triple bonds between their carbon atoms. ALKENES contain at least one carbon-carbon double bond, and this is indicated in the family name and names for specific compounds by an –ene ending. ALKYNES contain at least one carbon-carbon triple bond, and this is indicated in the family name and names for specific compounds by a –yne ending. AROMATIC compounds contain a special type of ring, the most common example of which is a benzene ring. There is no special ending for the general family of aromatic compounds.
Hydrocarbons are the simplest organic compounds. They can be straight chain, branched chain, or cyclic molecules. Carbon tends to form four bonds in a tetrahedral geometry. Hydrocarbon derivatives are formed when there is a substitution of a functional group at one or more of these positions. They all contain a carbon backbone called a carbon skeleton and have hydrogen atoms attached to that backbone. In view of this the above concept, an experiment was conducted with the following objectives:(1) to be able to know the odor, color and physical state of hydrocarbons,(2) to be able to know the combustibility of O2 and the effect of light in hydrocarbons,(3) to be able to know the terminal alkynes and the unsaturation of hydrocarbons.
A. Materials and Apparatus.
The chemicals that were used during the experiment are methane, acetylene, cyclohexane toluene, bromine in carbon tetrachloride, potassium permanganate, silver reagent and calcium carbide.