Psychology is defined as the scientific study of behavior and mental processes. There are many different schools of thoughts in psychology. Also, there are many different theorists in psychology that played a huge role in some of the beliefs. Even though, psychology is widely studied in America, some of the main people were from different countries. There are many different types of school of thought: functionalism, structuralism, behaviorism, psychoanalysis, and humanism, cognitive, biological, and evolutionary.
Englishman Edward Bradford Titchener gave the name structuralism to this first school of thought in psychology, which aimed at analyzing the basic elements, or the structure, of conscious mental experience. Structuralism was most severely criticized for its primary method, introspection. As structuralism was losing its influence in the United States, a new school of psychology called functionalism was taking place. The influential work of Charles Darwin was largely responsible for an increasing use of animals in psychological experiments. William James was an advocate of functionalism even thought he did much of his writing before this school of psychology. .
Sigmund Freud developed a theory of human behavior based on largely on case studies of his patients. Freud's theory, psychoanalysis, maintains that human mental life is like an iceberg. The smallest, visible part of the iceberg represents the conscious mental experience of the individual. Freud believed the unconscious is the storehouse for material that threatens the conscious life of the individual. The most notable of Freud's famous students are Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, and Karen Horney, who broke away from their mentor and developed their own theories of personality. Freud's influence in the field of psychology is not nearly as strong as it once was, but he has had a great impact on the popular culture.