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industrialisation and Collectivisation in Russia

            Both, industrialisation as well as collectivisation were two polices introduced by Stalin with the aim of modernising the USSR. Although these did aim to improve the way the USSR ran and improve living conditions these both processes had their negative impacts. So I think we can not state they were a complete success, neither a complete failure.
             Stalin replaced Lenin's market socialist "New Economic Policy- with a Five-Year Plan, which called for a highly ambitious program of heavy industrialisation and collectivisation of agriculture. In spite of early break downs and failures, the First Five-Year Plan achieved rapid industrialisation, although from a very low economic base. Russia, an inert sleeping giant before 1914, now became industrialised at an unbelievable speed. Stalin's industrialisation did make Russia a very successful industrial country. By the late 1930's many Soviet workers had improved their conditions by gaining well-paid skilled jobs and earning bonuses for meeting targets. There was an almost non-existent unemployment rate. Stalin also encouraged women to work by setting up childcare services; four out of five new workers recruited between 1932 and 1937 were women. He also made education compulsory and free for all. It must be noted however that most ordinary Russians lived in extreme poverty and had very few rights during this period. Life was very hard, factory conditions were very dangerous. Any kind of discipline problems such as lateness or absence would be punished with sacking, which could also mean the loss of homes.
             The rapid growth in the number of industrial workers living in cities meant that more food was needed. Stalin believed that this could be achieved by collectivising agriculture. The theory behind collectivisation was that it would replace small scale un-mechanised and inefficient farms that were the common place in the Soviet Union, with large scale highly mechanised farms that would produce food far more efficiently.

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