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             The research paper "Upper and Lower Respiratory Tract Infection by Streptococcus Pneumoniae Is Affected by Pneumolysin Deficiency and Differences in Capsule Type " was published on November 26th 2001 by A. Kadioglu, S. Taylor, F. Iannelli, G. Pozzi, T. Mitchell and P. Andrew. The article primarily discussed the investigation on how pneumococcal toxin pneumolysin affects the capacity of pneumococci to the infection of both the upper and lower respiratory tract. .
             Pneumoccoccus (pl. pneumococci), also known as streptococcus pneumoniae is a type of bacteria that is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. It can cause diseases like pneumonia, meningitis and otitis media. Pneumoccoccus can also colonize the upper respiratory tract which begins with the colonization of the nasopharynx. This allows a path for pneumoccocus to further traveling down into the lower respiratory tract and to eventually cause systemic diseases. "It has been estimated that the upper respiratory tracts of 40% or more of children carry pneumococci."(Upper and Lower Capsule Type, introduction) In addition, healthy people can also be asymptom carriers of this type of bacteria. Depending on the age, the environment of the carrier and the presence of underlying respiratory infections, the carriage rate varies from 5% to 70% (Upper and Lower Capsule Type, introduction). The pneumococcal polysaccharide capsule and the multifunctional pneumococcal toxin pneumolysin are important virulence factors because of their anti-phagocytic ability.
             The experiment was conducted by using wild-type streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 2 and 3 strains, a serotype 2 pneumolysin-deficient mutant and a serotype 2 mutant with pneumolysin gene. A pneumococcal chimeric mutant (capsule type switched from serotype 2 to 3) was examined to study the role that capsule plays in nasopharyngeal infection. All of the trials were performed on female MF1 outbred mice that were 9 weeks old and weighed 30 to 35 g.

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