World War I officially began on July 28, 1914 and ended on November 11, 1918. The war started between two nations, Austria-Hungary and Serbia, and ended with thirty-two nations. France, England, Russia, the United States, and Serbia, along with twenty-three other nations fought as the Associated Powers. Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria fought as the Central Powers. According to Encarta Encyclopedia, the four year war cost all the nations about $186 billion and had more than 37 million casualties.1 .
The Treaty of Versailles was the peace treaty signed after World War I between the Associated Powers and Central Powers. In the treaty, Germany had to reduce its army to 100,000 people and its navy to 15,000 people. Germany had to stop all imports and production of weapons. The Associated Powers made Germany pay for the cost of the war with money, trains, livestock, natural resources, and ships. In addition, Germany had to give up 27,500 square miles of territory.2 The Ottoman Empire was placed under French and British rule. Austria-Hungary had to give away its territories and Ausria-Hungary was split up into two countries. Bulgaria lost most of the land that it had gained in the Balkan Wars and all of its conquests from World War I. It was also required to reduce weapons, and pay the Associated Powers .3 .
Nationalism is defined by Hans Kohn, D.J., a writer for Microsoft Encarta, as movement in which the nation-state is regarded as paramount for the realization of social, economic, and cultural aspirations of a people.4 The Congress of Vienna left the Germans divided. The Congress of Vienna also left Italy divided into many parts, some of which were under foreign control. Revolutions and strong nationalistic movements during the 19th century succeeded in "nullifying" much of the reactionary and antinationalist work of the congress.5 Italy became a nation in 1861, and Germany in 1871.