The study of logic is a study of the rules of reasoning by which people arrive at conclusions. Logic is defined popularly as the science of reasoning, but that is not entirely accurate. "The term "reasoning" merely identifies the practice of drawing conclusions from premises." (Okholm, Pg 34). Reasoning is the kind of mental process that is different from other mental processes, such as imagining, remembering, fearing and hoping. " Reasoning could be either correct or incorrect " (Wesley, Pg 14). Reasoning is correct if the premises provide good evidence for the truth of the conclusion inferred from them; otherwise the process of reasoning will be incorrect. Correctness and incorrectness is the central problem of reasoning in which logic deals. .
"Reasoning has traditionally been divided into two different general types, such as deductive and inductive" (Ralph, Pg 87). Deduction is the very essence of the mathematic reasoning, in which theorems are demonstrated to follow the absolute necessity from the axioms or postulates assumed as premises. The philosopher and mathematician first introduce correct deductive reasoning by the name of Libnitz. Deductive arguments are either completely valid or else totally invalid. Deductive reasoning is valid when its premises and conclusion are related and it is absolutely impossible for the conclusion to be false when the premises are true. .
The premises of an inductive argument are held to provide evidence for the truth of the conclusion, but not absolutely conclusive evidence. Inductive reasoning will permit the reference of conclusions, which are well supported by their premises. Inductive is not a weaker or less dependable kind of deduction. Both inductive and deductive are legitimate and important types of reasoning that involve logic.