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Ethical Reasoning

            Aristotle's virtue ethics gives a sense of excellence in fulfillment of a particular function and a sense of well being, resulting from achieving excellence in the fulfillment of one's functions. It means to be all you can be and in turn you will do great in whatever it is you are trying to accomplish. Virtue theory places special emphasis on moral education since virtuous character traits are developed in one's youth; adults, therefore, are responsible for instilling virtues in the young. The failure to properly develop virtuous character traits will result in the person acquiring bad character traits. Aristotle's philosophy is often reduced to the "golden mean": Virtue lies at the mean between two extremes. This "mean" or middle ground will be different for everyone; if you are a police officer you are going to be expected to have more courage than someone like a computer programmer.
             Like Aristotle, Kant wanted good or us to do well. He said that all people are of equal value, and not to exploit anyone or use them as a means to an end. Kant stated that an action has moral worth only when done from duty rather than from inclination. He also said an action derives its worth not from its purpose, but by the maxim that determined it. Saying Kant's ethics are to "decide what you want to do" can sum this up.
             John Stuart Mill is known for the Utility principle and said; an act's rightness is determined by its contribution to a desirable end. Mill a Utilitarian, introduced the notion that: The consequences of actions are important in deciding whether they are ethical. Utilitarianism ethical philosophy is the greatest good for the greatest number.
             Philosopher William David Ross bases his ethical theory on the belief that there is often more than one ethical value simultaneously "competing" for priority in our ethical decision-making. Ross proposed six types of duties: 1. Fidelity/Reparation 2.

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