According to the textbook, Baroque is defined as the seventeenth-century artistic and cultural style, characterized by an emphasis on grandeur, opulence, expansiveness, and complexity. The term originated from critics to describe architecture and paintings that failed to meet their standards of beauty. Among the general characteristics of baroque art is a sense of movement, energy, and tension. Throughout the Renaissance and into the baroque period, painters sought a grander sense of space and truer depiction of perspective in their works. An example of painting that greatly shows these points is Pozzo's Allegory of the Missionary Work of the Jesuits. Pozzo believed that the illusion of infinite space could evoke feelings of spiritual exaltation and even religious ecstasy. Although the use of linear perspective and Classical architecture is borrowed from the Italian Renaissance, the illusionism, the infinite space and the spectacular effects make this a masterpiece of the Florid Baroque. And the most excellent expression of Florid Baroque is the church of St. Peter's in Rome. Originally conceived during the High Renaissance, Maderno and Bernini were signed on to integrate the huge church into the urban surroundings. .
Neoclassical style began to show its face around the late eighteenth century that emerged as a reaction to the Rococo style and that sought inspiration from the ancient Classicism. It wanted to steer from the style of Rococo, and develop into a new type of style that incorporated the art and architecture from Greek and Roman times. Jacques-Louis David, the most famous of Neoclassical painters, established the techniques and ideals that soon became typical of Neoclassical painting. He showed his mastery of those techniques in The Death of Socrates. His arrangement of the figures reflected the Classical ideal of balance. He also brings in the concept of linear perspective.