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In what ways was the year 1848 a turning point of European h

            The year 1848 was called 'the revolution year' that there were many revoltions in European states in that year. Revolts appeared in France, Italy, Germany, Austria, Hungary and many other states. Owing to the widespread revolutions, the concert of Europe ended and therefore a competely different Europe. To my stand point, I agree that the year 1848 was a turning point for Europe. The year 1848 ended the autocratic rule and turned into a new page of Europe. A.J.P. Taylor describes 1848 as 'opening of an era'. .
             Politically speaking, the map of Europe appeared much the same as it had been after the Congress of Vienna before 1848. Most of the states were under the regime of political repression, autocratic government and aristocratic privilege with the exception of France, Belgium and Britain only.Austria, under Metternich System was one of the repression and reaction country against revolution principles.She was dominated in German Confederation and northern Italian states. After the year 1848, the balance of power was upsetted.Austria declined as the Metternich threat was away.She lost her dominant role in both German and Italian states. As M.Walker points out that 'the wave of revolution in 1848 ended the era.and brought an end to the age of Metternich'. With the decline of Austria, France became the centre of Europe. Since then France played an active role in European affairs. this could be proved in which the Italian unification was mainly helped by France under Napoleon III. .
             Someone claimed that both the Italian and German failed to unify their country in 1848. There is no doubt that their unification was compeletled in 1870. However, although the revolutions were suppressed mercilessly, they were taught a great lesson. Both of them relized that unification would not be achieved without economic and military reforms. Besides, external affairs and diplomatic skills were important to achieve their goal.

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