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Counter Reformation Movement and it's Effects

            "Inasmuch as Luther's revolt from Rome and the spread of Protestantism occurred after.
             the height of the civilization of the Renaissance and before some particularly fundamental.
             advances in modern European political, economic, and social development, it is tempting.
             to think of historical events unfolding in an inevitably cumulative way, from the.
             Renaissance to the Reformation to the "Triumph of the Modern World." But history is as.
             seldom as neat as that. Although scholars continue to disagree on points of detail, most.
             agree that the Protestant Reformation drew relatively little from the civilization of the.
             Renaissance, that indeed in certain basic respects Protestant principles were completely at.
             odds with the major assumptions of most Renaissance humanists. In considering the.
             relationship between the Renaissance and the origins of the Protestant Reformation, it.
             would admittedly be false to say that the one had absolutely nothing to do with the other. .
             Certainly, criticisms of religious abuses by Christian humanists helped prepare Germany.
             for the Lutheran revolt. Furthermore, close humanistic textual study of the Bible led to.
             the publication of new, reliable biblical editions used by the Protestant reformers. In this.
             regard a direct line ran from the Italian humanist Lorenzo Valla to Erasmus to Luther.".
             (Western Civilizations Vol.2 515).
             The Counter-Reformation Movement was the movement within the Roman Catholic.
             Church in the 16th and 17th centuries that tried to eliminate within that church and to.
             respond to the Protestant Reformation.Not until Paul III became pope in 1534 did the.
             Roman Catholic church receive the leadership it needed to coordinate these impulses and.
             meet the challenge of the Protestants. This pope approved new religious orders like the.
             Jesuits, and he convoked the Council of Trent (1545 - 63) to deal with the doctrinal and.
             disciplinary questions raised by the Protestant reformers.

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