Stanley Hall, adolescence is "a period of storm and stress." However, we must ask if this is caused by biological factors or by social and cultural influences. I believe that it is caused by biological factors, but aggravated other influences. Hormonal changes are the biggest cause. Fluctuations in the different chemicals your body uses can cause the mood swings and other "symptoms" of adolescence. Because of the fact that pretty much everyone during that time experiences those symptoms, it is hard to say that it is caused by outside factors. However, they can be aggravated by outside factors. For example, if someone was put in a high stress environment during that period of their life may experience mood swings etc more frequently and with more severity. But the overall cause is still changes within the person themselves.
Cultural influences and social expectations are some of the outside factors that aggravate the symptoms of adolescence. For example, a female teenager is expected to be moody and irrational. It is seen often in movies, shows, etc., when the female teenager stomps upstairs after being told she must be in by curfew or whatever. So when someone does it in real life, it isn't reprimanded as much because they are just being teenagers. So the teen does it more often because they are getting all these signals that say it is ok. Everything around them is saying that it is out to let your emotions get out of control. The underlying biological causes are still there, but if it were not deemed ok by society, they would not seem as bad.