According to the progressive historian Charles Beard, Constitution was nothing else but an economic document written by a particular class for their economic interests. His strong believe originated from the time period he lived in. And as a progressive historian Beard wanted to curve the axes of capitalism. Progressive movement tried to rationalize and create better society through Government's action which didn"t interfere with the daily problems of average people. That lead to the conclusion that capitalism is flawed. This whole concept had a strong influence on Beard's view and opinion of constitution.
He talks about economic ideas and focuses on economic interests and states that constitution is a creation of particular classes to protect their interest. What he misses is that Constitution is not a protection but a compromise of many competing interests. And not only economic but political, sectional and philosophical. .
Document One gives us a chart of fears people had when deciding about a government. After the revolution, citizens of the United States had 2 general ideas of what kind of government they should have. One opinion was that there should be no strong central government and people would have all the power. And so called Antifederalists had this fear that once there will be a strong central government it would take away people's freedom, rights and it would be the similar situation as it was before the revolution. On the other hand there were Federalists who were afraid of weak central government. After a Shaye's rebellion federalists opposed to the fact that people should have all the power. So this fear of people, fear of weak central government had it's justification for creation of the central government. And as James Madison said, " If all people would be angels there would be no need in government." But people aren"t angels so they do need government. Because of this conflict, constitution presents a compromise of Central Government with limited rights such as taxation, foreign policy, including war affairs.