Francis Bacon was a philosopher and a politician who came from a noble family, and would also become nephew by marriage to William Cecil, 1st Minister of Queen Elizabeth then. Bacon studied law and became a member of Parliament and, in part thanks to that, he was given a lots of titles, such as knight, attorney general, lord chancellor, Baron Verulan and Viscount St. Albans. But soon after all those prosper times, he would be accused of corruption (even though most politicians were corrupt in those times) and thus had to abandon politics. Because of this, he would dedicate the rest of his life to science and writing. He had quite a strong faith in science and induction (which consists in achieving a general theory from individual facts), which was considered by him to be the new "spirit" to reach the truth. Hence his dislike for the scholastics, who defended abstract reasoning, even ignoring the observation of nature. Bacon wanted to base knowledge on the accumulation of facts, and he would even got to ignore the role that hypothesis play in order to elaborate a theory, which is fundamental. Anyway, this empiricist would have lots of followers and disciples, who would later promote The Royal Society in England: an institution founded in 1660 within the Restoration that promoted scientific study and that was absolutely independent from Universities (which were still under the scholastic influence). .
What would make Bacon so influential in literature would be his essays. The essay was a form developed by him, although that new way of composing had been invented before by Montaigne. Their essays were quite different, though: while Montaigne's were very personal, intimate, and written in the first person; Bacon's were very impersonal, even solemn sometimes. Bacon's style is stoic (then known as Senecan style) that is to say direct, brief, and with sentences without ornaments.