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Empirical research

            Mackenzie, Doris Layton; Katharine Browning; Stacey B. Smith (1999) The Impact of Probation on the Criminal Activities of Offenders? The Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 36(4):423-453.
             1) This study, the impact of probation on the criminal activities of offenders was eligible for people convicted of a felony offense (mostly drug charges and property crimes) and been given probation. They had to have supervised requirements of meeting with a probation officer at least once per quarter and had to be just entering the probation program when the study began. Next, the offender was excluded if they were on administrative supervision, or were required to spend time in a halfway house or in a treatment facility. Offenders were also excluded if they did not speak English, or live outside the identified areas or in another state. .
             2) This program is studying the comparison of criminal activities a year before being sentenced to probation, to their criminal activities while in the probation program. Offenders who fit the criteria of being able to enter the program were contacted by the people performing the study and asked if they would participate. If the offender agreed to enter the study, they were given a date to be interviewed, two months after the start of their probation. At the first interview they were asked about demographic and personal history information as well as detailed information on drug use and crime patterns. The probationer would ask about the criminal activities the year before arrest, using a monthly calendar to help establish better time frames. Also the offender would receive $25 for each of there two interviews. .
             The second interview was given six months after the first, eight months after initial start of probation. This interview would be identical to the first with two exceptions. First, they would not ask the offender about information on there demographics and criminal history before there arrest because it would not have changed from the first interview.

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