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Cloning Background

            A normal human cell is involved in many different stages of growth before it is sufficiently prepared to perform its specified duties within the human body. So as not to confuse many of you with medical terms you may not be familiar with, we have created a background of normal human cell growth and preparation. You can use this background in comparison with techniques used in the cloning advances of today.
             ]The life cycle of a eukaryotic cell is a complex and ongoing process that typically occurs in three primary stages known as Interphase, Mitosis and Cytokinesis. We begin with Interphase, which in itself includes three smaller aspects referred to as G1, S and G2. G1 begins with the new cell creating necessary materials for the succeeding stages. The S stage is responsible for the replication of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), the genetic material of the cell. In the S stage, the DNA has progressed into long, thin strands known as chromatin. When each strand as been completely replicated it is connected to a compatible centromere. G2 stage has now begun and specialized enzymes are used to check the strands of DNA for possible errors. After the strands are checked, proteins for the succeeding stage of Mitosis are synthesized.
             In order for single cell animals to become complex organisms (multicellular) they undergo Mitosis in which the nucleus will replicate (double) and divide itself. Two individual cells are then created. They are genetically identical. Mitosis is necessary for the cell in order for it to assist in the replacement or repair of other sister cells in that region of the human body. Mitosis not only occurs when a cell undergoes first growth, but also frequently throughout a human's life. This is necessary to periodically repair muscle tissue in order to maintain a healthy body.
             Mitosis consists of four primary stages referred to as Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase. In Prophase, the linked DNA binds with proteins, they twist with each other to become two short, thick chromatids, and they attach themselves to the centromere.

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