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MCL Tear or Sprain

            The knee is considered one of the most complex joints in the human .
             Because so many sports apply stress to on the knee, the knee is one of the .
             most commonly injured joint. The knee is considered a hinge joint, but because .
             the rotation of the tibia is an essential part of knee movement, the knee is not a .
             true hinge joint. The stability of the knee joint depends primarily on the .
             ligaments, the joint capsul and the muscles that surround the joint. In this report .
             i will concentrate on one of the ligamants, the MCL, or the Medial Collateral .
             Ligament. .
             Injury occurs as a result from a medial directed force from the lateral side, .
             or from an external rotation of the tibia. Tears resulting from rotation combined .
             with side stress with the foot fixed result in an ACl and occaionally PCl tears. .
             More significant injuries occur with medial sprains than from lateral sprains .
             because increased potential of injury to the joint capsule and medial meniscus. .
             Many mild-to-moderate sprains leave the knee unstable and vulnderable to .
             additional internal derangements. .
             Because the medial collateral ligament attaches above the joint line of the .
             medial condyle of the femur and inserts well below the joint line of the on the .
             tibia, the main function of the medial collateral ligament is to stabalize the knee .
             against side-to-side forces at the knee joint. An example of this would be, a .
             running back that gets hit on his side at the knee joint. The medial collateral .
             ligament's major purpose is to protect the knee from side to side forces, but it .
             also protects the knee from external tibia rotation.
             There are many tests that can be used when assesing a knee injury.One .
             test is the Valgus stress test. This test is inteded to reveal the laxity of the medial .
             and lateral ligaments. The athlete lies on his back with the leg extended. To test .
             the medial collateral ligament, a side force is applied with the knee fully extended .

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