The Tanach, Plato's Republic, and Aristotle's Politics, each deal with the question of how to structure the political state and manufacture its relationship with the individual. Though these works differ in their beliefs as to the appropriate nature of the political state, their discourses ultimately strive to the same end "an attempt to deal with the issues of justice, and the creation of a society in which people are encouraged to pursue a moral, and thus happy, life.
Plato's primary concern in creating his republic is the establishment of a just political state that will promote a life of moderation and discipline for its citizens. Plato's value system does not encompass the ideas of freedom and unalienable rights; rather he believes that the purpose of a society is that it be organized in a fashion that ensures the control of the baser aspects of human nature.
It is therefore no surprise that Plato does not institute social and economic equality within his just city. Rather, Plato premises his city on the notion that it is necessary to distinguish between different types of individuals since naturally different people are endowed with different qualities and abilities. " [W]e aren't all born alike, but each of us differs somewhat in nature from the others, one being suited to one task, another to another each person does one thing for which he is naturally suited and is released from having to do any others- (Plato 45). Plato further extends this concept and states, " it turns out that doing one's work is justice- (Plato 180). Justice can only be executed when people perform those functions naturally mandated to them, as this ensures the total good of the city. .
Thus, Plato divides the city into two socioeconomic groups: the common people, the farmers and craftsmen who control the wealth of the republic, and the guardians who by virtue of their nature and superior education are vested with the responsibility of ruling and protecting the citizens.