PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIALOGICAL PERSPECTIVES ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND BEHAVIOUR H.N.C. SOCIAL CARE.
In this essay, I intend to explain the classic life cycle theory of Erik Erikson, and apply that to the development of personality and identity of "James" taking into account the nature and nurture debate.
Eriksons theory (which is based on Freud's theory but is more society and culture oriented) has eight stages of development, with a different conflict that must be resolved at each stage, the person has two choices in handling each crisis, or task, being either adaptive or maladaptive, when each task is solved and there is a change in personality, then the individual can move on to the next stage. If a conflict is not dealt with in the stage in which it arises it will either be carried through, or crop up at a later stage.
STAGE I (0-1years).
CONFLICT- Trust v.'s Mistrust .
IMPORTANT EVENT/INFUENCE- Feeding/Mother. PSYCHOSOCIAL VIRTUES - Hope, Faith.
At this stage the infant will only develop trust if the parent or carer regularly meets the child needs in a consistent and responsive way. The child must learn to trust and bond with the parent (namely Mother at this stage) otherwise, they will begin to develop signs of mistrust. If a good balance is achieved the child will develop hope, knowing even if things are not going well they will be alright in the end. .
MALADAPTATIONS AND MALIGNANT TENDENCY .
Babies, who have not formed a strong bond with their mothers, are more likely to be uncooperative and aggressive towards their mother. When they are older, tend to be withdrawn, unenthusiastic, give up easily, with little drive for life or sympathy, and understanding for those around them. .
If a mother is overly protective, the child may become gullible and over trusting. (Sensory distortion) On the mistrust side depression, paranoia or psychosis (withdrawal).