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Osmosis And Diffusion

             In principle, just about all substances diffuse, with a variation of rates. Diffusion is the process in which the particles are uniformly distributed or at equilibrium, and the process of random movement toward a state of equilibrium. In diffusion, motions are uniquely at random can produce a net mevement-always a direction from a diffusion of water from high concentration to low concentration through a selectively permeable membrane. This process of diffusion of water is a passive process, meaning without any use of energy. Diffusion is imperative for the distribution of ion and other solutes within a cell. Small molecules and ions may move from one end of an organelle to another in a fraction of a millisecond, or from the center of a cell to its surface almost as fast. There are two types of diffusion across the membrane barrier:.
             It depends on concentration of solutes in an aqueous solution on the two sides seperated by a membrane. Solute concentration is related to osmotic pressure. Greater the solute concentration, greater the osmotic pressure, and greater the tendency to absorb water.
             Hyperosmotic Solution (hypertonic):.
             A solution with a higher concentration of solutes.
             Hypoosmotic Solution (hypotonic):.
             The solution with lower solute concentration.
             Isosmotic Solution (isotonic):.
             The solutions containing equal concentrations of solutes.
             Utilizes membrane protein to allow charged molecules to freely diffuse in and out of the cell. The channels come into greatest use with small ions like K+, Na+, Cl-. The speed of facilitated transport is limited by the number of protein channels available, whereas the speed of diffusion is dependent only on the concentration gradient. Facilitated Diffusion: Carrier Proteins and Ion Channels.
             Glucose, sodium ions and choride ions are just a few examples of molecules and ions that must efficently get across the plasma membrane but to which the lipid bilayer of the membrane is virtually impermiable.

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